Lorenzo Romano Amedeo Carlo Avogadro di Quaregna e di Cerreto, (9 August 1776, Turin,Piedmont – 9 July 1856) was an Italian scientist. He is most noted for his contributions to molecular theory, including what is known asAvogadro's law. In tribute to him, the number of elementary entities (atoms, molecules, ions or other particles) in 1 mole of a substance, 6.02214179(30)×1023, is known as the Avogadro constant, which is represented by NA.
Amedeo Carlo Avogadro was born in Turin, Italy in 1776 to a noble family of Piedmont, Italy. He graduated in ecclesiastical law at the early age of 31 and began to practice. Soon after, he dedicated himself to physics andmathematics (then called positive philosophy), and in 1809 started teaching them at a liceo (high school) in Vercelli, where his family lived and had some property. In 1820, he became professor of physics at the University f Turin. Turin was now the capital of the restored Savoyard Kingdom of Sardinia under Victor Emmanuel I. Avogadro was active in the revolutionary movement of March 1821. As a result, he lost his chair in 1823 (or, as the university officially declared, it was "very glad to allow this interesting scientist to take a rest from heavy teaching duties, in order to be able to give better attention to his researches"). Eventually, King Charles Albert granted a Constitution (Statuto Albertino) in 1848. Well before this, Avogadro had been recalled to the university in Turin in 1833, where he taught for another twenty years.
In honor of Avogadro's contributions to molecular theory, the number of molecules in one mole was named Avogadro's number, NA or "Avogadro's constant". It is approximately 6.0221415 × 1023. Avogadro's number is used to compute the results of chemical reactions. It allows chemists to determine amounts of substances produced in a given reaction to a great degree of accuracy.
Avogadro is hailed as a founder of the atomic-molecular theory.
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