Lithium atomic structure

Above is the structure of a Lithium atom.

An atom is the defining structure of an element, which cannot be broken by any chemical means.{1}Atoms's are basic building blocks of matter .

An atom's structure has never been observed through naked eyes or even indirectly. But through experiments Scientists have been able to tell the inside structure of an atom . A typical atom contains protons , neutrons and electrons ; except hydrogen which contains no neutrons. Protons are positively charged , electrons have negative charge while neutrons have no charge. Protons and Neutrons are about the same in size and an electron is about 2000 times smaller than both. Electrons are held towards the nucleus due to electromagnetic force .

A group of atoms can remain with each other, together, by forming bonds which is known as Chemical bonding

There are currently 118 known types of atoms. Atoms differ in sizes, affinity and charge-capacity. This can be easily analysed through a periodic table .


The name atom comes from the Greek ἄτομος (atomos, "indivisible") from ἀ- (a-, "not") and τέμνω (temnō, "I cut"), which means uncuttable, or indivisible, something that cannot be divided further.{2}


The idea of matter being of indivisible dates back to ancient India and Greece. The ancient Greek philosopher Democritus, who first thought up of the atom. Kanada, an ancient Indian scientist, was the first one to state that matter was indivisible. The word atomos was coined by ancient Greek philosophers for atom.

John Dalton was the first person to give an evidence-based theory . He used to concept of atoms to tell why elements reacted in small whole numbers(The law of multiple proportions ).

In 1827, botanist Robert Brown  used a microscope to look at dust grains floating in water and discovered that they moved about erratically, a phenomenon that became known as "Brownian motion ". Albert Einstein gave a mathematical analysis of motion in 1905. French Scientist, Jean Pierre , experimentally proved the Dalton's Atomic theory , later on, when he calculated the mass of the atoms and their dimensions.

Structure of AtomsEdit

To know about Structure of Atoms, Visit this page: Structure of Atom

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